Distribution system is the part of the power system which distributes electrical power for local uses. It generally consists of feeders, distributor, and the service mains.

Distribution losses refers to the difference between the amount of energy delivered to the distribution system and amount of energy customers are billed.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Distribution system faces a big problem of excess power loss at Ikwiriri village power distribution system which leads to income loss to the supply company (TANESCO), as it used to produce a large amount of power so as to meet a village power demands. So this project aiming at minimizing this problem.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The project objectives are in two categories

Main objective

Specific objective

MAIN OBJECTIVE

To minimize excess power loss in the distribution system at Ikwiriri village power distribution system.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

To research on total power demand at Ikwiriri village

To research on amount of load connected in the system

To propose proper solutions to minimize the problem

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This study will results into proper solutions on minimizing the problem.

Income benefit to the supply company.

METHODOLOGY

In order to execute the project the following methodologies shall be used in chronological order

Literature review

Data collection

Data analysis

Recommendation

Report writing

LITERATURE REVIEW

This part deal with reviewing about general view of distribution system and losses, these sections are concerned.

Meaning of distribution system.

Types of distribution systems.

AC distribution system.

Connection schemes of distribution systems.

Requirements of distribution systems.

Power and energy

Distribution losses in distribution system.

Types of losses in the distribution system.

Causes of the losses in the distribution system.

Remedial measures of controlling the losses.

Effects of the losses in the distribution system.

EXISTING SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

PROPOSED BLOCK DIAGRAM

DATA COLLECTION

Data collected from different resources

Different manuals and data books.

Different websites on internet concerning power losses.

TANESCO Ikwiriri branch office

Source: TANESCO IKWRIRI BRANCH, 2017.

Route length of L.V (low voltage) line 43 km.

Route length of high tension line ( H.T)77 km

The most used conductor in a distribution system, cross-section area 25mm sq.

The most used conductor in a transmission system, cross-section area 50mm sq.

Number of customers are 965.

DATA ANALYSIS

After completion of data collection, the data were analyzed to estimate the total losses in the distribution system so that the measures should be taken to minimize the problem.

Analysis were done in the following aspects

HT and LT losses

Transformer losses

Power factor

Load balanced

Standard size of the conductors

Joint and terminations

Non technical losses

Distribution Losses = (Energy Input to feeder(Kwh) – Billed Energy to Consumer(Kwh)

Percentage power loss = (Losses/Units generated) x 100%

ANALYSIS OF HT LOSSES

ANALYSIS OF LT LOSSES

TRANFORMATION LOSSES

ANALYSIS OF POWER FACTOR

Normally poor power factor causes more losses in the distribution system.

Due to the inspection made, it has been observed that the distribution system operating under low power factor about less than 0.8 for several months.

LOAD BALANCE.

Many transformers at Ikwiriri operate at load unbalance which leads to

some consumers at end terminal to suffer from low voltage. Load unbalanced results to losses in electrical distribution

This occurs when one phase is loaded more than the other, the loss will be more than it would have been when the load is balanced.

SUBSTANDARD OF CONDUCTORS

Through the inspection made in the distribution system, it has been observed that some cables have used wrongly. In some areas 25mm sq. has been used instead of 50sq mm between poles of power supply.

POOR JOINTS AND TERMINATIONS.

Poor joints and terminations is the one of the contributing factor of high voltage drops in the distribution line. After the inspection of the distribution line, many different positions having poor joints and terminations were identified which lead to loose contacts between the conductors which joined together. When current flow through loose contact, resulting to high opposition to the current flow which generate heat a that point. This leads to an increase in resistance and subsequently the voltage drop at that point.

CONCLUSION

Due to the analysis made in this project , the following were observed.

Technical losses have contributed to the distribution losses about 17.82%

Non-technical losses also have contributed about 4.47%

It is clear that the total losses (22.29) occurred in the distribution system is above the permissible losses which is 18%, so solutions have to be made.

Therefore the project was successfully completed.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on finding, discussion and analysis in this study the following recommendations are made.

Proper selection of conductors (cables) should be considered.

Load balance and power factor correction.

Use proper jointing techniques, and keeping the number of joints to a minimum.

Installing the energy meters to transformer

Preventive and corrective maintenance should be carried out to minimize power losses on the distribution network.

Feeding heavy consumers directly from the feeders.

To provide continuous training on how to control power theft.